Optimisation of Automated External Defibrillators


Optimisation of Automated External Defibrillators: A Randomised Simulation Study


To investigate how different structural and functional features of commercial automated external defibrillators (AEDs) affect usability, and whether these features can be optimised to improve overall use and effectiveness of AEDs in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.


Initial phases of the study will include qualitative interviews and simulation tests with three different commercial AEDs. Data from this phase will be analysed and coded to design and produce a 3D-printed prototype-AED. In the final phase of the study participants will be randomised 1:1 to use either a commercial AED or our 3D-printed prototype in a randomised simulation study. 


The study will include both health care professionals and untrained laypersons at ages 18 - 64 and ≥65 years old.


Participants will be randomised to use either a commercially available AED or our 3D-printed prototype-AED in an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest simulation.


The primary outcome is time to first shock.


The study will provide important knowledge on the most effective and user-friendly design for utilisation of public accessible AEDs by untrained laypersons. Identification and optimisation of intuitive structural designs will provide guidance for future standards for AED designs. This may result in faster electrode placement, faster defibrillation, and accordingly a higher rate of defibrillation success for bystanders. This could improve survival rates following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.


Professor Bo Løfgren, MD, PhD, FESC, FAHA (main supervisor)

Kristian Krogh, MD, PhD

Kasper Glerup Lauridsen, MD

Mathilde Stærk, MD


Marlice Zwanenburg

Research Year student